Excerpt from Geology of the City of New York: Greater New York In geological affinities, if the term may be used, Manhattan and the Bronx are allied to northern or primordial, even archaean structures; Richmond, Kings and Queens to southern and recent, though, indeed, in Richmond, there is a problematical nucleus of serpentine hills, probably derivative from crystalline schists, similar to those of Manhattan Island. In view of this diversity of feature the discussion of the topo graphical conditions and the geological nature of the City of New York will naturally fall into three sections; first that of Manhattan Island, with an appendix embracing brieﬂy the similar construction of the Borough of the Bronx; second, that of Brooklyn and Queens and third, that of Richmond. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.