Excerpt from Modern China: Thirty-One Short Essays on Subjects Which Illustrate the Present Condition of the Country The question has been asked, What have been the chief causes of that still increasing energy of the Chinese race which enables them to absorb other nations and always be found conquer ing in the struggle for existence? The population tables shew that they did not grow at any time beyond about 60 millions until, at the end of the 17th century, the great body politic began to assume gigantic proportions. This growth has continued in the face of famines, wars and pestilences, and it now causes that overﬂow which in the United States and Australia occasions a serious political disquietude.' The causes appear to be the absence of vexatious inter ference with the people by the govern ment, the extension of foreign trade, the effects of stimulus given to education by the examinations, and the spread_-of emigration. As to the government, the two reigns Kang-hi and Chien-lung both lasted sixty years and the wars under taken were then always successful. The laws were ameliorated, the poll tax, which acted as a check on population, was abolished, and the people were al lowed to have their own way to such an extent that it may be said that China is democratic, while in theory ruled by a despotic government. The upward movement of population was delayed in the Kang-hi period by the wars with Wu San-kwei and Koxinga, but as soon as universal tranquillity was restored the increase indicated by the census returns shewed that political peace is the great thing required by the Chinese race to ensure its prosperity. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.