What Is It?SP Ultimate is a comprehensive prostate formula containing herbs, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants to provide high capacity support for prostate and urinary function as well prostate cell health.*Uses For SP UltimateProstate Function: Saw palmetto, pygeum and beta sitosterol offer support for healthy urinary function, in part by maintaining healthy hormone metabolism and enzyme activities. A meta-analysis involving 18 randomized controlled trials and almost 3,000 men indicated that saw palmetto provided positive support for urinary health. In a related meta-analysis, pygeum demonstrated similar support. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study with 200 male subjects revealed that beta-sitosterol also provides promising urinary function support.*Prostate Cell Health: Data from over 47,000 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study suggested that tomato or lycopene intake was positively associated with prostate cell health. Healthy plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, selenium and zinc have also been associated with maintaining healthy prostate cell metabolism. In one large cohort study involving 29,133 men, alpha-tocopherol supplementation provided healthy cell support for the prostate. Vitamin D, curcumin and green tea play key roles in prostate cell health, including support for healthy matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, cell receptor function and cell signaling. Pomegranate and silymarin provide enhanced antioxidant support and promote healthy prostate cell cycle function.*What Is The Source?Vitamin D3 is derived from lanolin. Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol succinate) is derived from soy. Zinc is sourced from the lime of rock. Citrate is derived from corn fermentation. Selenium† is derived from selenium yeast. Saw palmetto (serenoa repens) extract is standardized to contain 45% total fatty acids. Lycopene is derived from natural tomato concentrate. Pygeum africanum extract (bark) is standardized to contain 2.5% total sterols. Beta-sitosterol is sourced from a soy-based phytosterol complex. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) extract is standardized to contain 80% silymarin. Curcuma longa (turmeric) extract is standardized to contain 97% curcuminoids. Green tea (camellia sinensis) extract provides 65% total tea catechins, 23% epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 7% caffeine. Pomegranate (punica granatum l.) extract is standardized to contain 5% ellagic acid. Vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate) is derived from corn dextrose fermentation and palm oil. Hypo-allergenic plant fiber is derived from pine cellulose. †As Selenomax® (high selenium yeast). Selenomax® is a registered trademark of Nutrition 21, Inc.RecommendationsPure Encapsulations recommends 3 capsules daily, in divided doses, with meals.Are There Any Potential Side Effects Or Precautions?Not to be taken by pregnant or lactating women. Rare side effects include occasional gastrointestinal distress, nausea, itching, and headache. Milk thistle should be avoided by individuals with allergies to members of the aster (Compositea/Asteraceae) family, daisies, artichoke, kiwi or thistle. Are There Any Potential Drug Interactions?Some studies have reported that milk thistle can affect the way that the liver breaks down medications metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, altering the effects of these medications and possibly the dose needed for treatment. Certain ingredients may interfere with certain heart, blood thinning, antidiarrheal, and cold or hay fever medications. Consult your physician for more information.